NoMAD Login AD is a replacement login window for macOS 10.12 and higher. It allows you to login to a Mac using Active Directory accounts, without the need to bind the Mac to AD and suffer all the foibles that brings.
Jamf Pro in a framework that provides for a number of ways to interact with client systems. This includes Extension Attributes, Scripts, and Package Manifests. Some older systems can make use of Managed Preference Manifests as well.
Run Scripts on client computers to perform custom actions. Anything you can script can be automated in Jamf Pro.
Extension Attributes run a script on a client computer and respond with information that you can then use to scope policies and settings.
Composer comes with over 100 package manifests. Get more Package Manifests in this GitHub repository.